The first half of the 18th century was a period of growth in the economic base of the Russian state. The process of colonization of the Urals and Siberia intensified, the number of Ural metallurgical plants increased. The Chelyabinsk fortress appeared during the activities of the Orenburg expedition, which played a big role in the development of the territory of the Russian state.
On September 13, 1736, Colonel A.I. Tevkelev founded a fortress on the right bank of the Miass River. In a report to his boss, he wrote "on the Miyasa River in the Chelyaba tract, from the Miyasskaya fortress, thirty miles away, he founded a city." The fortress was rectangular in shape with ledges at the corners and two towers on the north and south sides, about 130 x 130 meters in size and with a wooden fence. According to local historian I.V. Degtyarev, the territory occupied a section of Kirov Street in front of the bridge: its western side ran 65 meters from the axis of the street behind the tobacco factory, and the eastern side separated a third of the current Yaroslavsky Square. Along the river bank in front of the fortress wall, the first city street was formed, which became one of the main streets of old Chelyabinsk (now Truda Street).
Gradually, new residential areas are being built around the fortress. Due to the large influx of population, especially after 1743, when Chelyabinsk became the center of the Iset province, the left bank of the river was also built up. The tsarist government attached great importance to the Chelyabinsk fortress and sought to develop trade and industry in these places. To do this, they began to attract merchants, philistines, guilds ...
From the day of its formation, the Chelyabinsk Fortress acquires a leading role in the system of fortresses built to ensure the safety of the movement of carts with food and equipment for the Orenburg Fortress - the southern outpost of Russia.
The second half of the 18th century in Russia was marked by great urban changes. Catherine in 1763 signed a decree "On the making of all cities, their buildings and streets of special plans for each province especially." Chelyabinsk did not bypass the decree either. In 1768, the first project was developed, which was a network of rectangular blocks. But this project was not carried out. One of the reasons is the Peasant War led by Emelyan Pugachev.
In 1784, another plan was made, but it did not receive its development, since it did not take into account the already existing capital development, but assumed a grid of rectangular quarters.
Only in 1838 was the project approved by the Troitsk land surveyor Sidorov, who played a big role in the further development of Chelyabinsk. The project took into account existing buildings with historically established functional areas and provided for the prospective development of a city center...
The industrial upsurge in Russia at the end of the 19th century caused an accelerated railway construction. In 1881, the construction of the Samara-Zlatoust railway began - part of the Great Siberian Route, which connected Chelyabinsk with the center of Russia. This event, which attracted a large number of people of various professions and wealth, marked the beginning of the rapid development of Chelyabinsk, which until that time had been growing very slowly.
Thanks to rapid growth, the economic significance of Chelyabinsk has changed significantly - at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, Chelyabinsk becomes a major trade and economic center.
The following population figures can speak about the growth of Chelyabinsk: 1781 - about 1500 inhabitants, 1861 -5300, 1897 - about 20 thousand, 1909 - almost 60 thousand. It took almost two centuries to reach the 100,000th population threshold...
A separate stage in the development of Chelyabinsk is the development during the years of Soviet power. Within a few decades Chelyabinsk became a major industrial center of the country. This was facilitated by the presence in our region of large reserves of fuel and various raw materials.
During the years of industrialization, Chelyabinsk turns into a huge construction site. The years 1927-1930 were marked by the construction of a thermal power plant. Then ferroalloy, electrode, abrasive, zinc, and tractor plants were put into operation.
During the Great Patriotic War, sixty enterprises were evacuated here from the front line. The population of Chelyabinsk has increased dramatically...
Currently, no new plants are being built in Chelyabinsk, the existing ones are being reconstructed and re-equipped, the profile of manufactured products that meets the most modern requirements is changing.
At the same time, intensive civil construction is underway, including the construction of new modern microdistricts with complete infrastructure...
Chelyabinsk today is a major transport hub where cargo flows from Asia and Europe converge. Chelyabinsk railway station is one of the largest in the country. Also in Chelyabinsk there is a large airport capable of receiving both domestic and foreign flights.
Chelyabinsk is home to such strategically important enterprises as the Chelyabinsk Pipe Rolling Plant, the Chelyabinsk Iron and Steel Works, the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant and many others, which allow Chelyabinsk to firmly hold its leading positions in metallurgy and heavy industry.
recreation and culture
Modern Chelyabinsk does not seek to look exclusively as an industrial city. It also has places for recreation, entertainment and art.
For example, you can visit the famous Chelyabinsk «Kirovka». The pedestrian zone of Kirov Street is the hallmark of the city, and in terms of amenities and beauty it can be compared with the Moscow Arbat.
In Chelyabinsk, there are such large cinemas and cinema complexes as «Kinomax», «Cinema-Park». Chelyabinsk theaters such as the «Opera and Ballet Theatre», the «Drama Theatre», the «Manneken Theater» can be considered examples of classical productions and repertoire.
The most popular holiday destinations among residents of Chelyabinsk are the entertainment complexes «Megapolis», «Gorki», «Rodnik», «Fiesta», «Focus», where you can make useful purchases and just have a good time. In addition, in Chelyabinsk there are trendy and popular nightclubs «Galaktika Razvlecheniy», «Garage», «Panta Ray» and many others that host the stars of European and world parties.
The Chelyabinsk region is famous for its natural beauty. Numerous lakes are scattered in dense coniferous and deciduous forests, and the Ural Mountains give unusually beautiful landscapes to their visitors.
In the Chelyabinsk region there are such well-known lakes as Uvildy, Turgoyak, Smolino, Zyuratkul and many others, because it is not for nothing that the Chelyabinsk region has a different name - «The Land of a Thousand Lakes».